The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. 1TO9 Womens Solid Mule Casual Urethane Boots MNS03061The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,1TO9 Womens Fringed Bows Bucket-Style Urethane Boots MNS03032AdeeSu Womens Spikes Stilettos Zipper Urethane Boots SXC03304 New Sandals Summer shoes Women 2018 Sexy PVC Crystal Open Toe High Heels Sandals shoesWeenFashion Women's Assorted color Imitated Suede High Heels Peep Toe Zipper Sandalsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, AdeeSu Womens Metal Buckles Assorted colors Urethane Boots SXC03246and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. FINDYOU Sexy Snake Printing Women Super High Heels shoes Slingbacks Comfortable Thick Square Heels Nightclub PumpsMamamoo 2019 New Low Wedges Heels Sandals Women Genuine Leather Ankle Strap Summer shoes Woman,gold,7We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,AdeeSu Womens Chunky Heels Bows Imitated Suede Boots SXC03195AdeeSu Womens Chunky Heels Pointed-Toe Imitated Suede Boots SXC03075WeiPoot Women's Low-top Lace-up Soft Material High-Heels Round Closed Toe BootsFINDYOU high-Heeled shoes Metal Decoration Thin Heels Open Toe high Heels shoes Pumps Red I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. 1TO9 Womens Business Solid Tote-Style Urethane Pumps shoes MMS06469), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. HIPPOSEUS Women's Latin Dance shoes with Rhinestones Ballroom Party Tango Performance shoes,Model YC372), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Sandals Men Women Quick Drying Summer Sandal Mesh Breathable Padded Beach Flip Flops shoes Diving Socks Aqua Socks Great for Swim Yogaand INC International Concepts Womens Maylap Open Toe Special Occasion Slide Sand.). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Mirak Womens Milos Trainer Purpin Size UK 8 EU 41Glaze Women High Heel Strapped Chunky Sandals shoes Opened Toe Faux Nubuck Cushioned Bucklesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Eoyles gy Cute cat Meow face Woman Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Basketball shoesDormery Ankle Boot Suede Soft Leather Women Boots Double Zip Short Plush Spring Autumn Boots Plus Size shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Kaloosh Elegant Ladies Ballet Flats for Women Square Toe Double Row Cingulate Pumps shoesTHE NORTH FACE Women's Shellista Extreme (Toddler Little Kid Big Kid)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Inc Womens Rachelle Satin Embellished T-Strap Sandals Beige 7 Medium (B,M)Ivanka Trump Womens Tevelyn Padded Insole Suede Slingbacks.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Paul Mayer Attitudes Womens blueff Leather Round Toe Ballet FlatsInterestPrint Women's Wholecut Dress shoes Cashmere-Like Leather Slip On Loafer Walking shoes Damara Womens Textured Check Wallet Fashion Card Case,BlackWeiPoot Women Open Toe Low Heel Cow Leather Soft Material Solid Sandals with Rhinestones, gold, 8 B(M) USThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: AmoonyFashion Women's PU High-Top Solid Pull-On High-Heels BootsAmoonyFashion Women's Pointed Closed Toe Spikes Stilettos Buckle Solid Pumps shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.American Rag AR35 Savanah Lace-Up Casual Sandals, Black, 8 USJelly Jolly London Boots and Sock Bundle Black Sole - Transparent Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same place1TO9 Womens Beaded Spikes Stilettos Low-Cut Uppers Black Down Pumps shoes - 6.5 B(M) US1TO9 Womens Spikes Stilettos Low-Cut Uppers Pointed-Toe Pink Suede Pumps shoes - 7 B(M) US.AmoonyFashion Women's Patent Leather Solid Hook and Loop Open Toe High Heels SandalsKali Footwear Women's Easy Lace Up Fashion Canvas Sneakers shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Ladola Womens Light-Weight Closed-Toe Tuxedo Adjustable-Strap Suede Pumps shoes1TO9 Womens Pointed-Toe Spikes Stilettos Metal Buckles Champagne Urethane Pumps shoes - 6.5 B(M) UStherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Top Moda Hailey-1 Women's Cutout Tie Back Stacked Chunky Platform Heel Sandal).Beacon Womens Sparkle Fabric Open Toe Special Occasion Slingback SandalsItalian shoesmakers Womens 162 Fashion Made In Sandals However,F1rst Rate Women's Retro Style Lace Up Ankle Bootie Casual BootWeenFashion Women's Imitated Suede High-top Solid Zipper Kitten-Heels Boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Footprints Women's Beverly T-Strap Flat

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