The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Apex Women's Julia Wrap AroundThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Steve Madden Womens Mollie Ballet FlatRocky Men's 11 Original Ride Square Toe Western Boot-RKW0131 (M8) Brown Danner Men's Gavre 6 Inch Work BootMIZUTORI Japanese Geta Style Black & Shiny Sandals with Brown KAKISHIBU Patterngenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Rocky Men's 7 Side Zipper Paraboot Duty Boot-2091 Blackand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Summit White Mountain Women's Kalea Ghillie Flat Black Suede Size 38 MAsics - Fuzex Lyte 2 4393We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Saucony Women Jazz O' Triple Sneakers Pink SilverCamper Womens Monday Flat FlatNike Magista Opus FG Men's Soccer BootARA Women's ROM 1234410 Hi-Top Trainers, bluee (blue, Midnight 17), 8.5 UK I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Adidas Men's ZX Flux, Black White Pink), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Noah's Women Leather Flat, Open, Retro Biblical Sandals with Adjustable Width), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Zee Alexis Danielle-A Red - Size 10and Hot Chocolate Design Chocolaticas Cherry Women's Mary Jane Flat). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, D.A.T.E. Women's W291HLCAWK White Leather SneakersWANGXIAOLIN Summer New Style Open Toe With A Word With Hollow Fashion Sandals ( Size 36 )during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nina Women's Freida Slouch BootIrregular Choice Muppets Original Diva Miss Piggy Heels Size 6.5Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? MOA Women's MCGLCAK000005046E White Leather SneakersLoeffler Randall Womens Lyra Ankle Tie Espadrille Wedge (Suede) Espadrille Wedge SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Lowa Mens Vantage GTX MidLinds Mens Monarch Rental Bowling shoes- Hook and Loop.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Rocky RKYS082 Men's Waterfowler Waterproof Insulated WaderARIAT Men's Workhog Steel Toe Work Boot Toast Size 7 D Medium Us Swedish hasbeens Womens Suzanne Debutant Heeled SandalNIKE Tiempo Legend V FG Soccer Men'sThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Tony Lama Western Boots Womens 3R Square Toe 8 B Tan Fire 3R2302LTed Baker Women’s Queanem Trainersfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Adidas Predator Tango 18+ Turf shoesNEWROCK New Rock Boots Style M.TR003 S1 Black Womens Steel Heels (40) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeCRIS VERGRE' women's shoes sandals EJ2401P CUOIOJeffrey Campbell Women's CSwomenSSUEBLACK Black Suede Heels.Dan Post Western Boots Mens Unit Waterproof Round 14 M Saddle DP69512Sigerson Morrison Women's Kira Over The Knee Boot At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, INC International Concepts Womens Zitah Pointed Toe, Winter Plum, Size 7.5Giani Bernini Alanny Women's Boots Dk taupe Size 9.5 Mtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Johnston & Murphy Womens Maren Natural Snake Print Wedge Sandal).Addrienne Vittadini Nappa Women's Ankle Boots shoesFranco Sarto Womens Kamden2 Flat Sandal However,Hades shoes - Titan Stiletto Steampunk Platforms 7.5 PurpleSocofy Leather Ankle Bootie, Women's Vintage Handmade Buckle Pattern 7.5 B(M) US I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.LACROSSE Economy Knee Boot 16 Black (24009033) Waterproof Insulated Modern Comfortable Hunting Combat Boot Best for Mud, Snow

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