The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Classic Women's Fitness Walking Sneaker Comfortable Platform Swing shoes US 7The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Classic American Flag Print Women's Fitness Sneaker Lace-up Athletic Walking shoes Size 5Women Cool Print Lace Up Platform Fitness Work Out Sneakers Walking shoes Size 5.5 WeenFashion Women's High-Heels Soft Material Zipper Open Toe Solid SandalsWeenFashion Women's Solid PU High-Heels Round Closed Toe Lace-up Pumps-shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Women Pump 5CM Heels Women Wedding shoes Nude Heels Ladies Pumps Beige Patent Leather shoes Pointed Toe High Heelsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Pleaser Women's Amuse 38SN D'Orsay Fashion PumpsSaraIris Women Cow Suede Solid Daily Snow BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Bar III Womens Victor Fabric Open Toe Casual Slide Sandals, Dark Tan, Size 10.0Franco Sarto Womens Margie Heeled SandalModern Abstract Art Woman Neutral Fashion Running shoes Funny ActiveKyle Walsh Pa Women shoes,Sweet Shallow Mouth Rhinestone Pointed Toe Metal Buckle Soft Ballet Flats shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Born Womens Garren Leather Slingback Thong Sandals), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Elegantpark Women Peep Toe High Heel Sandals Cross Strappy Wedding Evening Dress shoes Buckle Stain), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, AN Womens Non-Marking Structured Checkered Urethane Sandals DIU00940and AN Womens Dress Cold Lining Solid Urethane Platforms Sandals DIU00941). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Women's Light Weight Waterproof Sandal with Arch Support FootbedSlickkicks Men's & Women's Water shoes Diamond bluee Mesh Slipper 8 M USduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). August Jim Women Thong Sandals-Gladiator Ankle Strap Buckle Clip Toe Flat shoesAllhqFashion Women's Blend Materials High Heels Round Closed Toe Solid Buckle Pumps-shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? AllhqFashion Women's Pointed-Toe Blend Materials Boots Kitten-Heels Knee-high BootsFabulicious CARESS-412 Women's 4 (10.2cm) Heel Wrap Around Sandal Clear ClearAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?DecoStain Women's Concise Zipper Square Thick Heel Knee High BootsA&N Ladies Closed-Toe Lace-Up Round-Toe Urethane Pumps shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).AN Womens Chunky Heels Platform Zipper Leather Boots DKU021521TO9 Womens Solid Novelty Boots Urethane Boots MNS02724 AmoonyFashion Women's Buckle Pointed Closed Toe Spikes Stilettos Blend Materials Solid Pumps shoesWomen's Qupid Trish-25 Thick Heel Pumps shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: WeenFashion Women's Kitten-Heels PU Solid Hook-and-Loop Round-Toe SandalsWeenFashion Women's Buckle Low-Heels Fabric Assorted color Sandals, CA18LB05052factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.AN Womens Zipper Zipper Imitated Suede Boots DKU02226AN Womens Chunky Heels Platform Metal Buckles Urethane Boots DKU02132 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same place1TO9 Womens Platform Fashion Travel Urethane Boots MNS02751Vitalo Womens Pointed Zip up Thigh High Heel Over The Knee Stiletto Boots.Kyle Walsh Pa Women Canvas Flat shoes Casual Slip-on Loafers Pregnant MoccasinsMicandle Green Women's Sneakers Fashion Print High Top Canvas Sneakers shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, HIPPOSEUS Women Latin Ballroom Dance shoes with Rhinestones Modern Tango Salsa Party shoes Heel 6.5CM,Model AFCT404Woman's Summer Beach Fashion Big Flowers Non-Slip Sandals and Slipperstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (New Women's Bag Women's Shoulder Bag Brown Crossbody Casual Portable Simple Crossbody Bag).Gome-z Fashion Desig Women Pumps 10cm Crystal High Heel shoes for Women Sexy Pointe Toe High Heels Party Wedding shoes WomanLadola Womens Chunky Heels Chunky Heels Low-Cut Uppers Sequin Pumps shoes However,OLIVIA K Womens Classic Low Mid Heels Mary Jane Pumps - Adorable Round Toe Vintage Retro shoesCotswold Womens Ladies Appleton Touch Fastening Ballet Pump I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.AdeeSu Womens Pointed-Toe Unique Platform Low-Cut Uppers Suede Pumps shoes

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