The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. AicciAizzi Women Boots Zipper Hidden HeelThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,TAOFFEN Women Ankle Strap Sandals shoes Wedge HeelTAOFFEN Women's Fashion Lace Up shoes Rongzhi Womens Pumps Stiletto High Heels Ankle Cross Strap Platform Formal Dress Party shoes Round ToeOx Horn Metal Pointed Low-cut Women Thin shoes black 41generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, CarziCuzin Women Solid Zipper Bootieand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Tuoup Womens Leather Fashion Flat Summer Ankle Strap SandalsKEREE Women's Platform Oxfords shoes Round Toe Lace-up Slip On Chunky Heel Vintage Dress shoes PumpsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Thigh High Boots Women Faux Suede Leather High Heels Over The Knee shoes Embroidery Female FootwearFINDYOU Women's Sandals Rome Ladies Gladiator shoes Crystal Flat Heel Flip Flops Sandal Handmade Beach shoes CasualAicciAizzi Women Fashion Summer Bootie ZipperTop Moda Women's Round Toe Slouchy Boot with Buckle Tan I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Teva Women's W Sanborn Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. CarziCuzin Women Simple Ankle Strap Heels Sandals), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, KemeKiss Women Fashion Boots Velcroand Fashion Thirsty Womens Low Heel Knee High Boots Designer Inspired Striped Stretch Size). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Rocket Dog Womens Afina Westville Cotton SneakerCobian Womens Soho Flip Flopduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). FINDYOU Women's Beach Sandals Rome shoes Flower Flat Heel shoes Flip Flops Sandals Open Toe Casual SandalFheaven Women's Ladies Clip-Toe Slippers Flat Beach shoes Roman Flip Flops Sandal BlackLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Eleganceoo Womens Platform Sandals - Ladies Summer High-Heeled Sandals Transparent Ankle Wrap shoesNature Breeze Womens FF47 Block Heel Ankle Booties (9 B(M) US, Black Suede)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Fleet & Foster Womens Canary Summer shoes Grey Size UK 3 EU 36Mirak Womens Chabilis Mule Slipper bluee Size UK 7 EU 40.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Japan [Pure Walker] Pure Walker PW8503 PW8503 2 (White L)New Balance Women's 420v4 Cushioning Running shoes Gjsonmv Forest Wild Boar Pig mesh Lightweight shoes for Women Fashion Sports Tennis Sneakers shoesGjsonmv Watermelon Ice Cream Funny bluee mesh Lightweight shoes for Women Casual Sports Trail Running Sneakers shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Gjsonmv Funny Mathematics Brown Backdrop mesh Lightweight shoes for Women Cool Sports Gym Sneakers shoesKaizi Karzi Women Fashion Party Pumps Block Heel Glitterfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Easy Street Womens Whisper PumpCircus by Sam Edelman Women's Hendricks Loafer There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeKAANAS Womens Pattaya Scalloped Pool Slide Fashion Sandal Slide SandalSmilice Women Sexy Sandals with Thin Heel 11.5 cm.Butterfly Twists Womens Olivia bluesh Pink Black Ballet Pumps shoes SizeCrocs Womens Ladies Cleo V Sandals (9 US) (Espresso Mushroom) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, SaraIris Women's Platform Thong Comfotable Flip Flop Outdoor Indoor Beach SandalsAdeeSu Womens Dress Solid Platform Urethane Pumps shoes SDC05847therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Beacon Womens vanessa ankle boot Suede Closed Toe Ankle Fashion Boots).AdeeSu Womens Hounds-Tooth Pleated Casual Fur Walking shoes SDC05825SaraIris Women's Peep Toe Pearl Chunky High Heel Dress Ankle Strap Sandals However,KemeKiss Women Fashion Long Boots Pull OnGiani Bernini Womens Cecie Leather Padded Insole Booties I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.KemeKiss Women Comfort Thick Solo Wedges High Heel Ankle Boots

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