The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Jessica Simpson Women's Geisela Gladiator SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Yosi Samra Womens Cap Toe Bow Foldable Ballet FlatsT-JULY Women Fashion Over The Knee Boots Sexy Female Autumn Winter shoes Lady Thigh High Boots Lalige Cartoon Owl Womens Vintage Canvas Slip-on Walking shoesLalige Flowers Crowded Together Women's Fashion Canvas Slip-on Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Nice Style Thick Sole Army Lace Up Cross Tied Motorcycle Platform Velvet Round Toe Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Ros Hommerson Women's Paolo PumpNatural Soul Womens Faire Heeled SandalWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Ellie shoes Women's 3 Inch Heel Sandal (Silver Clear;8)Women's shoes Suede Fall & Winter England Student Booties Deck shoes Flat Lace Up Martin Boots Fitness & Cross Training shoes (color Black, Size 38)Sexy Women High Heel shoes Women Print Peep Toe Platform Thin Heels PumpsApi goldfish Woman Cool Fashion Running shoes Funny colorful I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Nike Women's Zoom Winflo 4 Running shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Skechers Womens ON-The-GO Joy Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, bluee-shore Women Sandals Ladys High Heels Gladiator Squrare Heels Open Toe Sandias Party Women shoes Footwearand YooPrettyz Fabulous Wedding Pump Crystal Encrusted Peep Toe Wedge Heel). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Dearfoams Women's Velour Scuff FlatAmarantos Women's Patent Leather Pointed Toe Elegant Kitten Heel Slingback Dress Pump shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nine West Women's Dontjudge SandalAdeeSu Womens Studded Dance-Ballroom Dress Urethane Pumps shoes SDC06127Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Fay Waters Women's Patent Leather Platform Oxfords Round Toe Lace-up Mid Heel Brogue Wingtip Perforated Saddle shoesCROWN Boots Womens Leather WhiteAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Brand Summer Patent Leather shoes Woman Beach Sandals Silver bluee Sexy Open Toe Casuals Summer SlippersWANGZHAO Women's Bag Satchel, Single Shoulder Bag, Small Square Bag, Female Bag, Retro Wild Bag.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).CYBLING Womens Foldable Square Toe Ballet Flats Comfort Slip on Walking Flats Dress shoesNew Balance Women's Rise V1 Cushioning Running shoes DANIELE ANCARANI Flats-shoes Womens Suede BeigeAdeeSu Womens Charms Solid Casual Urethane Boots SXC03583The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Lalige Mermaid Rainbow Women Casual Canvas Slip-ONS Travel shoesSummer Beach Surfboard Women's Cute Lightweight Sneakers shoes Gym Outdoor Sports shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.2017, Summer Simple Female Sandals, Leather high Heel fine Diamond Waterproof Table, Dew Toe Fish Mouth, Rome Sandals+ Melissa Luxury shoes Women's x Rider Slide Flat Sandal Light Pink Black 4 UK (US Women's 6) B (M) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWomen Boots Over The Knee shoes Autumn Spring High Heel Red White Black Thigh High Long BootSchutz Womens Hollye Dress Sandal.Black White Pirate Skull Women's Jogger Lightweight Basketball Sneakers Gym Outdoor Running shoesSkulls Halloween Pumpkin Bat Women's Jogger Lightweight Sneakers shoes Gym Outdoor Running shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Women's Stilettos Pointed Toe Straps Strappy Pump Heels Dress Party Suede Pointed Strap Sandals Black Beige (color A, Size 36)DIDIDD Women'S Short Boots High Back Side Zipper Lace Casual Women'S shoes,38 Eu,Blacktherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (WeenFashion Women's High Boots with Metal Buckles).KingRover Women's Pleated Buckle Cow Suede Leather BootsCambridge Select Women's Round Toe Lace-Up Wrapped Platform Wedge Oxford Ankle Bootie However,Ladola Womens Square-Toe Platform Cushioning Wedges Urethane Pumps shoesBaretraps Women's Landon Mary Jane Flat I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.AmoonyFashion Women's Cow Leather Solid Buckle Pointed-Toe High-Heels Sandals

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