The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. New Balance Women's Razah V1 Running shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,ZHZNVX Women's Microfiber Synthetics Summer Sandals Stiletto Heel Peep Toe Red Light bluee Light Green Wedding Party & EveningPUMA ST Winter Boot WMNS - 36121603 1TO9 Womens Nubuck Solid Bucket-Style Urethane Boots MNS03536AandN Womens Flats-shoes Closed-Toe No-Closure No-Heel Fringed Warm Lining Rubber Waterproof Manmade Smooth Leather Urethane Flats shoes DKU01873generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Womens Kitten Heels Boots Mid Calf Knee high Zipper Buckle Slouchy shoes Winter Strappy Martin Booties,bluee,37EUand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Alfani Womens Vennuss Closed Toe Knee High Fashion BootsTDA Women's Shiny Pointed Toe Metal Heel Burnished Patent Leather Evening Party Dress Stiletto PumpsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Women's Booties, New Winter Leather Boots Thick Ankle Boots Europe America New Martin Boots (color Black, Size 35)Franco Sarto Women's Cambria 2 Ankle Strap SandalBETANI Women Faux Suede Open Toe Chunky Heel Ankle Strap Sandal FC55 - TaupeILHABELA HOLDINGS INC Melissa Womens Big Heart Flip Flop Slippers I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Betsey Johnson Womens Sb-abia Pump), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. DYFYMX in Summer, The Wears Flat Sandals, and The Beach is Non-Slip Ethnic Cool Sandals and Slippers. Fashion Black, Size 40(UK7)(250mm)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, New Balance Womens Cruz Sock Fit V2 Fresh Foam Running shoesand Hush Puppies Womens Pekingese Strappy Buckle Sandal). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, KAANAS Womens Phoenix Espadrille SandalKenneth Cole REACTION Womens Rain Down Flat Mule with Tassel Detail Fabric Muleduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). WeenFashion Women's Import Frosting Chunky Heels Solid Lace-up Thigh-High Boots with MetalornamentYellow Box Womens Isabel BlackLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? CYBLING Women's Chunky Block High Heel Open Toe Triple Buckle Strappy Slide SandalsWomen's Sandals Stiletto Heels shoes 8cmAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Women's High Heel Sandals 2019 Summer Peep Toe Sequined Super High Heels Ankle Straps Stiletto Heeled Sandals Party Dress Court shoes,A,35Enzo Romeo Kinmi23New Women's Classic Elegant Low Mid Slipper Sandals Rhinestone Wedding Party Platform Open Toe Wedge shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).THE NORTH FACE Base Camp Plus Mini Women Foil Grey Olivenite Yellow (CXQ9)OLIVIA K Women's Strappy Woven Wedge Sandals - Sexy Open Toe Heel - Comfort, Fasionable, Casual Style 2019 Women Pumps Square High Heel Flower Printing Kid Suede Platform Round Toe Anti-Skid ShallowInterestPrint Graphic Cake and Candy Pattern Print On Women's Running shoes Casual Lightweight Athletic Sneakers US Size 6-15 BlackThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Tevolio Women's Rylan Tulle Front Two Piece Heels - White Almond CreamLady Martin Boots, Autumn Winter Fashion New Thick High-top Martin Boots Women's Booties Leather Women's shoes (color B, Size 36)factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Sanuk Women's Cabrio Poncho Flat Black CreamSoftWalk Women's Hadley Mary Jane Flat There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeKenneth Cole New York Womens Eryc Square Toe Ankle Bootie Ankle BootCalaier Womens Capast Sexy Ladies Designer Round Toe 15.5CM Stiletto Slip on Pumps shoes.Rieker Womens Pantoletten, Sandalen black, 910682-1U-lite Women's Faux Fur Upper Decoration Buckle-Detailed Flat Mule shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Sam Carle Women's Pumps,Rivet Bow-Knot Thin Heel Black Pink Comfortable Work shoesCalaier Womens Catrain Luxury Sexy Parties Comfortable Platform Big Size Round Toe 15CM Stiletto Slip on Pumps shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (BalaMasa Womens Chunky Heels Metal Chain Zipper Frosted Boots).WANGZHAO Satchel Bag, Shoulder Bag, Mini Bag, MiniWANGZHAO Women's Bag, Shoulder Bag, Satchel Bag, Classic Rhombus Chain Bag Lock Square Bag However,Newina Women's Comfort Microfiber Velvet Slippers with Memory Foam Washable Slip-on House shoesFloral Sea Turtle Light Green Gym Training Running shoes Women NMD I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.BalaMasa Womens High-Heel Zipper Solid Above-The-Knee Pointed-Toe Black Suede Boots ABL09728 - 5 B(M) US

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