The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Owen Moll Women Black Flats, Pointed Toe Square Heel Bow Slip-On Dress shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Gusha Women's high Heel Party high Heel Sandals Dress shoesFashion shoesbox Women Mens Fashion Leather Dad Platform Chunky Sneakers Flat Thick Sole Tenis Wedge Basket Casual Walking shoes AmoonyFashion Womens Open Toe High Heel Wedge Platform Soft Material PU Solid Sandals with Bowknot, Beige, 7.5 B(M) USGeneration Y Women's Boots Lace Up Ghillie Cutout High Heel Ankle Booties GY-WB-ANKLE41generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Gusha Soft Egg roll shoes Women's Folding shoes Flat shoes Casual shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Step n Style Women Beaded Sandals Khussa shoes Punjabi Jutti Mojari Flats BallerinaWomen's Classy Open Toe Strappy Cutout Ankle Strap High Heel SandalWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,A-LING Women's Casual Ankle Bootie Side Zipper Martin BootsFORTUN Women's Martin Boots Casual shoes Short Boots Retro Flat BootsMo Joc Women Sandal Boots with Open Peep and Sexy StilettoAN Womens Non-Marking Waterproof Cold Lining Urethane Pumps shoes DIU00866 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. COLOV Women's Comfortable Flat Leather Slip On Loafers), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Candies Womens' Juniors Fold-Over Faux-Fur Suede Slipper Booties & Tote Gift Set), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Unm Women's Peep Toe Gladiator Sandals with Zipper - Sexy Cutout High Heel - Stilettos Summer Bootsand Unm Women's Platform Sandals with Zipper - Open Toe Ankle Strap Chunky Evening - Bridal High Heel Buckle). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, AdeeSu Womens Bows Casual Travel Urethane Pumps shoes SDC05955Women Flats shoes Pointed Toe Sequin Comfort Slip-On Fashion Dress Flats shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Women's Open Toe Stiletto High Heel Ankle Strap Peep Toe Slip On Sandals,Beige-EU 40=9B(M) USWomans Running shoes Lightweight Anti-Slip Hiking Athletics Walking Casual Sports shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Women's Tuscany by Easy Street, Adagio Mid Heel Slide Sandals BLACK 6 NAutumn and Winter Ladies Short Boots Fashion Glasses with Pointed Side Zipper high HeelsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Women's Gladiator Sandals with Rhinestone - Unique Club High Heel - Ankle Wrap Zip Up StilettosXoiuSyi Winter Casual Warm Booties,Women Suede Thicken Warm Snow Ankle Increased Snow Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Fashion Focus Candy-2 Women's Designer Dress Flats with BucklesWomen's Sandals Open Toe Thick with Heel Sandals and Slippers Synthetic Leather Non-Slip Half Slippers Summer Wedge Heel Flip Flops for Women with Rhinestone Rubber Sandal,Red,39Colnsky Fashion Autumn& Winter Popular Plus CN Size 34-43 Woman Nubuck Leather KINGHT BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Devious Women's Femme 1020 14 BootsHanglin Trade Women's Shimmer Heeled Sandals - Sexy Stilleto High Heels - Open Toe Ankle Strap Sandalsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.New Balance Women's W770V5 Running shoesNORTY Women's Slide Strap Shower Beach Pool Sandal - 3 color Combinations There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeKnsenes Water shoes for Womens and Mens Quick Drying Summer Outdoor Aqua Socks for Pool Swim Surf YogaAslipper Womens and Mens Summer Outdoor Water shoes Aqua Socks for Beach Swim Surf Yoga Exercise (S(W 5.5-6.5,M 5-5.5), Pink2).Ellie shoes Womens 405-sasha Platform Dress SandalFleet & Foster Womens Algarve Moccasin Red Size UK 7 EU 40 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Friendly House Women's Chenille Microfiber Floor Cleaning Mop Slippers (Brown)Get-in Silk Leopard Grain Transparent Clear Heel 5Cm Women's shoes Low Heels Rome Casual shoes Pumps shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Rohde Womens Herne Real Leather Mules).Women High Heel Sandals T Stage Stiletto Party Wedding 34-42 PA00439Beautiful - Fashion Women's Round Toe Platform Oxford shoes Lace Up Perforated Chunky Mid Heel Vintage Dress Oxford Pumps However,Ailj Women's Sandals, Woman's Slide Summer Non-Slip Casual Sandals Bow Sandals blueeWomen's High Heel Pump Dress Sandals Open Toe shoes Women's Fashion Stilettos Open Toe Pump Heel Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Beautiful - Fashion Women's Ladies Latin Salsa Tango Dance Sandals Open Toe Morden Ballroom Dancing shoes with 2.75 Heel

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